If you are going to buy a bicycle, or already have one and starting to get more serious in cycling, it is of great importance to know and have some of the following gear and equipment, which will improve comfort, safety and efficiency:
One of the first ‘must have’ things is helmet. Besides trendy look it will give great protection for your head from falls, blows and even serious accidents. Do not buy cheap/plastic helmets and have one made from polymer foam. They absorb impact better and because of the design, force is evenly distributed over surface. Before buying, make sure it fits to your size and look for those with reflective stripes for urban and open road cycling.
You can buy whole cycling kit or separated pieces of clothing that will make your ride more comfortable. Because of the smooth surface and material, it will give you more aerodynamic line and wind protection. Also it will absorb body fluids and make you drier. Cycling jerseys have pockets on the back where you can put and have easy access for supplies/tools. Bib-shorts and gloves have cushioning to make a ride more pleasant and reduce pressure on your crotch/hands. If you are commuting or occasional riding in traffic, it should be a good idea to wear florescent cycling kit or vest. For cold and rainy conditions, it is desirable to have jacket with hydrophobic layer, long pants or sweat suit and overshoes to keep you warm.
Cycling Shoes and Glasses:
Wear glasses to protect your eyes from sunlight, wind, dust and insects. To have cycling shoes is optional but they will help you to save energy for pedaling, provide with secure/correct foot placement, efficient balancing, steady cadence and more power transfer.
Mostly their main purpose is to make you more noticeable in traffic, tunnels, rainy of foggy days and make your ride safer. If you befall to ride or commute trough city in heavy traffic, it is important, besides fluorescent vest, to have reflective stripes on helmet, bike and wheels. For open road, head and tail lights will make you more noticeable from long distance, especially at night or tunnel. Besides safety equipment, there are couple accessories that will come in handy for transport (cage racks that can be mounted on back for touring rides), road defect (tool holders), traffic awareness (side mirror) and refreshment (bottle cage).
Owning a bike also needs having necessary tools for unexpected defects on rides and maintenance. Some of most required items are hex keys (4, 5, 6 mm), cable cutter (wires for brakes/gearing), spoke wrenches (spoke tuning), chain tool (for chain removal), floor pump and hand-pump along with tire repairing l kit (useful for tire defects on rides) and multi-tool.